Tongan History 4 – Tu’i Tonga Settlements 4 & 5

Tongan History 4 – Tu’i Tonga Settlements 4 & 5

The Ha’amonga in Tonga is commonly mistaken to be built by Tu’i Tonga Tafeta (Tu’i Tatui). However, the Ha’amonga was actually built by the Ha’a Maui or the Koau Clan approximately 500 years before Tu’i Tatui. The Koau Clan was one of the three clans that settled Tonga and brought all three unique knowledge and influence to Tonga. The Koau Clan brought the Navigational knowledge with the head title being Maui. The Kohai Clan brought the Religious Knowledge and their main title was that of Taula. The Momo Clan brought the Knowledge of Government of Kingly Clan.The Chief Title of the Momo Clan was Tangaloa which was later reorganized as the Tu’i Tonga. These 3 clans were the foundation that built the Tongan Empire.

Fourth Settlement of the Tu’i Tonga – Tafeta I, Mo’ungalafa, Tafeta II – 1035 AD to 1085 AD

Tu’i Tonga Momo/Talafata moved the settlement from Toloa to “Tafeta I” which was located close to Lapaha.

 

At the time of the Toloa settlements and the settlements at Tafeta I, Mo’ungalafa, and Tafeta II the Tu’i Tonga empire was at it’s peak. While in Toloa Tu’i Tonga Puipui (18th T.T.) named his son Kau’ulufonua I who later became the 19th Tu’i Tonga. The naming of Kau’ulufonua commemorated the Tu’i Tonga Empire spanning 20 island nations hence the name Kau (bundle of 20)- ‘ulu (head) – fonua (islands/nations).

During this Tu’i Tong Settlement, the Tu’i Tonga Empire was at its peak. The Empire include all of Polynesia, all of Micronesia, and many parts of Melanesia.

Momo/Talafata 23rd Tu’i Tonga named his son, with his wife Nua, Tafeta who became the 24th Tu’i Tonga. Tafeta is in reference to the gathering of tribute to the Tu’i Tonga just as rocks above the shore collect salt as the ocean water is evaporated on the rocks. It is at this stage that the commonly referenced Tongan Empire is recognized as the pre-eminent power in the Pacific Ocean. The empire spanned throughout Polynesia, Micronesia, and large portions of Melanesia. The Kava Ceremony became the binding ritual throughout the empire. The term Tafeta is referenced in a variety of islands in the Pacific such as Tafeta (Tahiti) and Kaheka (Hawaii).

He named the settlement after his son Tafeta. The name Tafeta is derived from the word “taputa”, when salt water on the rocks on the seashore evaporates by the sun and becomes salt.

Langi Mo’ungalafa in Afa.

It was at this time that the kava ritual called “Fakaha’amalo” for the Tu’i Tonga was instituted. This is similar to the “Fakamuifonua” and “Taumafakava” for the “Tu’i Kanokupolu”. The “Fakaha’amalo” was instituted as a Kava Ceremony outside of the more rigid and formal “Fulitaunga” for the Tu’i Tonga. Due to the lack of a convenient port in the new settlement, Momo moved the settlement again close to the village of “Afa” in Tonga. This settlement area is still called Tafeta and the near the beach called Ha’amalo. Tu’i Tonga Momo built his langi again and named it after his langi in  Toloa, Mo’ungalafa II.

KEY LOCATIONS IN TOLOA, TAFETA I, MO’UNGALAFA, TAFETA II

1. Langi Mo’ungalafa II 2. ‘Utukakai, Makafoakinanga, Ha’amonga 3.Langi Talatama 4. Ha’amalo 5. Langi Tafeta I 6. Langi Kau’ulufonua I 7. Langi Mo’ungalafa I 8. Langi Puipuifatu 9 Toloa, Talakaifaiki, Tapu’osi, Ha’avakafuhu

It was also at this time that Tu’i Tonga Momo wanted to delegate some of his governing power out to locals in the various islands within the Tu’i Tonga Empire due to the difficulty of maintaining communications and order over long distances. This lead to the allowing of the furthest islands to conduct their offerings to the Tu’i Tonga within their islands rather than traveling to Tongatapu to do so. Islands that were near by came twice a year to Tonga for these offerings.

Lihamu’a was the first of the bi-annual offerings, which was called the Polopolo which marked the beginning of the warmer season. The second, gathering was Lihamui which marked the beginning of the cooler season and was called the ‘Inasi.

Momo’s son Tafeta did not agree with his father’s choice to delegate his power but continued his father’s wishes when Tafeta became Tu’i Tonga. Tu’i Tonga Tafeta named his Langi Tafeta II, he was a ruthless ruler and would often punish his subjects by hitting their knees continuously.

Both Tu’i Tonga Momo and Tu’i Tonga Tafeta both received nick-names for their unique behaviors. Tu’i Tonga Momo was nick-named  Talafata because of the multiple times he moved his settlements during his reign. 

Tu’i Tonga Tafeta was commonly referred to as Tu’i Tatui. This name directly infers the brutal practice he adopted of striking his subjects on the knees as a form of punishment.  His settlement, originally named Tafeta, was later replaced by the name Heketa. Heketa refers to how Tu’i Tatui’s subjects would crawl after being punished by Tu’t Tatui.

Ha’amonga Built 500 Years Before Momo (Talafata) and Tafeta (Tu’i Tatui)

Ha’a Kohai also known as the Ha’a Liha were the priestly group and settled in Pulotu or Western Tonga. These were the Priest/Taula. Ha’a Momo the kingly group settled in Loto Fonua also known as Loto Tonga & Langi. Their primary title was Tangaloa. Ha’a Koau also known as Ha’a Maui they were the “Kaivai” the navigators. 1. Ha’amonga built out of soil. 2. Maui’s Hook Constellation in the Ground made of Earth. 3 Ha’a Monga ‘o Maui made of stone built by the Ha’a Maui 500 years before Tu’i Tonga Momo and Tu’i Tatui.

Places at Tafeta and Mo’ungalafa named after Toloa:

  1. Langi
  2. ‘Ahau
  3. Tau
  4. Kau
  5. Pau
  6. Toa
  7. Fetoa
  8. Toafa
  9. Pangai
  10. Ha’atu’ukau
  11. ‘Apifo’ou
  12. Tefisi
  13. ‘Apitaki
  14. Totoate (‘Ate)
  15. Loloko

 

Tu’i Tonga’s who lived in this settlement era:

  1. Tu’i Tonga Momo/Talafata
  2. Tu’i Tonga Tafeta / Tu’i Ta Tui 
  3. Tu’i Tonga Talatama – moved the settlement from Tafeta to Ha’aloto

 

Langi’s built during this settlement:

  1. Langi Tafeta I
  2. Langi Mo’ungalafa II
  3. Tafeta II
  4. Langi Matamoana (the Langi of Fatafehi who was the daughter of Tu’i Tonga Tafeta/Tu’i Ta llTui

 

Fifth Tu’i Tonga Settlement: Ha’aloto from 1085 AD – 1100 AD

1. Ha’aloto Settlement, Langi Niutamatou 2. Langi Matamoana, Langi Tafeta

 

Places in Ha’aloto named after Tafeta and Mo’ungalafa:

  1. Langi
  2. ‘Ahau
  3. Tau
  4. Kau
  5. Pau
  6. Toa
  7. Fetoa
  8. Toafa
  9. Pangai
  10. Ha’atu’ukau
  11. ‘Apifo’ou
  12. ‘Apitaki
  13. Totoate (‘Ate)
  14. Loloko
Langi Niutamatou

Tu’i Tonga’s who lived in Ha’aloto:

  1. Tu’i Tonga Talatama
  2. Tu’i Tonga Niutamatou
  3. Talaiha’apepe – moved the settlement from Ha’aloto to Fangalongonoa, now called Mu’a.

Important events that occurred during the time of this settlement:

 

When Tu’i Tonga Talatama died, the people were in favor of having Talaiha’apepe (Tu’i Tonga Talatama’s brother) become the next Tu’i Tonga, since Tu’i Tonga Talatama did not have an heir. However, Talaiha’apepe was unwilling to accept the mantle of Tu’i Tonga as the Tu’i Tonga was to only pass from father to son.

In response to this, the Tu’i Fale Ua and the Fale Fa chose to enthrone Tu’i Tonga Talatama’s Kali (head-rest) as the next Tu’i Tonga, and was named Tu’i Tonga Niu Tamatou. Then a marriage ceremony was conducted for the newly anointed Tu’i Tonga and announced that there was a son born and conveniently named the child Talaiha’apepe (referring to Talatama’s brother). Tu’i Tonga Niu Tamatou suddenly died, and a proper funeral was held.

Tu’i Tonga Niu Tamatou’s “son” was now enthroned as Tu’i Tonga. This formality for Tu’i Tonga Niu Tamatou, a mere headrest, was done to maintain the claim that the Tu’i Tonga line was always passed from father to son. (Talatama was buried in Langi Heketa and his sister were taken back to Langi Matamoana. In 1922 the first Archaeologist came to Tonga and asked Queen Salote for permission to dig up a langi in Mu’a, but the Queen only permitted the Archaeologist to dig up Tamatou’s langi )

 

Langi at this settlement:

  1. Langi Niu Tamatou

 

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